Science Week: Long Reads on 5 Topics: Particle Physics (with Banana Scale Segue), Dust, Leptins, Machine Learning, Debt

Topics will be added per day, updated throughout the day. Consider visiting this post next week unless process analysis is your thing.

These are just topics that leave me guessing. I ponder these things for decades. I write about physics, biology and art. Sometimes when I tie seemingly dissimilar ideas together, its a royal mess, like leptons and leptins, crikey! And sometimes, within this comical brew, in the inchoate are the wild beginnings of a idea. Sometimes someone else benefits from my struggle. That’s the idea.

I have been busy with kids and Covid-19 for the past year, but I hope to use some sensors on a drone a paintbrush tool. I am going to make aerosol paintings using the vortices generated from a quadcopter, a real messy project. I will use an optical recognition system to give me data to fit some curves for motor controls, stuff like that.

I also sometimes do things arbitrarily in order to make me fond of things I am purposely keeping myself from doing. For example, I stopped translating an old travelogue in order to study up on and kanoodle about these following topics. Enjoy. Stay curious.

Particle Physics

Standard Model

Is supposed to offer a complete picture of how the universe works, but it does not offer such proof. It’s an approach that sort of works. Things break down at inhuman scales, inside black holes, inside solar entities, in jets of electromagnetic waves flung from rotating stars, especially at incredibly small scale, where the mere act of measuring something destroys it. The Standard Model has some old turf. There are subatomic particles and hypothetical subatomic particles. Some of these particles are still hypothesized, though, and the search for new physics to describe theoretical relationships are just that, hypothesis worthy of tests. There are always new research opportunities in quantum physics, so if you just want some news, click here and move along. Also, there are composites of all of these particles. Think of them as cascades that mix as they fall, or pertubations in whorls of paint that sandwich laminar and perturbative layers in seemingly endlessly regressing scales, like fractals, or explode out from a ray like branches from a tree as an avalanche of collisions resolve in trillionth and billionths of seconds. It’s a work in progress because it is yet to account for gravity.

Link to Standard Model

The Standard Model includes the matter particles (quarks and leptons), the force carrying particles (bosons), and the Higgs boson.
Figure 1. Standard model, courtesy of energy.gov

I once thought neutrinos to be the key to make/break of model of standard physics in Figure 1.A. Standard models were meant to be modded, so to speak. CERN, particle accelerators, This model explains weak, strong and electromagnetic forces, but not gravity. The standard model only supplies left-handed neutrinos, but the right-handed neutrinos can be accounted for involving a lot of boring physics and terms like Dirac mass, leptogenesis, and seesaw mechanism. Seesaws are boring. Pretty soon, machine learning algorithms will make all of this boring, solve these problems, and we can get back to getting toes in sand and books in hand. Cheers to that fantasy, at least.

The Lagrangian Deconstruction – used to display the complexity of the ultimate dynamic system (barring the inclusion of gravity, because gravity, despite gravity, oh gravity, my gravity, no gravity,woe, gravity) .

Figure 1.b. Lagrangian deconstruction of ev’thang, Good enough, courtesy of askamathematician.com

There is a sign error in part 3 of the five part equation of the deconstructed Lagrangian formula of the Standard Model in Figure 1.b. Do NOT ask me where it is for at least two more years.

When gravity waves were detected a few years ago, everyone freaked. Einstein had predicted them, and he was right. Gravity waves gave EInstein’s work a new era of interest, and today, special relativity is boring and old, like parachute pants, like Bic pens you find in a parking lot. Oh yeah, gravity and Einstein are like peas and carrots. However, if you visit Einstein’s statue in Washington DC, you would notice certain panels around the big bronze statue are inscribed with his ideas, and some are left blank. The statue implies, as do the sandals on the feet of the reclining figure, that the journey absolutely never ends. There are points of rest, but the search is eternal, for knowledge if it reminds one of peace. The point is, there is debate, and verifiable data models that overlap and solve some of the same problems, and theories of gravity still has some kinks to work out.

I am looking into the gauge theory of gravity and whorls of paint, baryonic acoustic oscillations, and other things to see how the acoustic collisions in the large universe parallel the stuff happening at the very small. I just assume that sometimes there is not a linear progression, and even if there were to be a tidy solution: 1) it would probably be kept secret for the good off humankind- we have a habit of turning technology into weapons; 2) it would take you ten years to learn how to talk about it in front of college freshmen from your average small town and have them understand it; and 3) it would be proved wrong almost immediately, because it always happens like that. 4) Civilations which arose billions of years ago will obviously have a say in what sort of nice things we get to have because this universe is probably a projected fantasy of a – warning, word salad ahead -malfunctioning third rate million-year-old artificially intelligent teenage brane-eating biomass printing dog/Ooort cloud/probability game.

Figure 1.c This is part of a three-part presentation picking up where quantization of string theory in Minkowski space, where serial quantum gravity, conserved in gravitons, sort of give you a foot in the door for putting gravity into the deconstructed Lagrangian formula, courtesy of https://www.mit.edu

MNFR shows up 3 minutes LATE into this lecture, possibly a time traveller?

My interest is primarily in the design of the facilities that are used to detect neutrino collisions, because I can better understand the physics of the detection systems by looking at big material systems, and some of them are elegant and creative. Some of them use lasers, and ‘Edge states of Floquet-Dirac semimetal in a laser-driven semiconductor quantum-well‘ is a fascinating read. As superconductors get smaller and more efficient at room temps, discoveries will continue to reveal more information about force-carrying particles like bosons, and basic components of elements in the periodic table made from quarks. Everything in the junk yard is made from quarks. Quarks make hadrons, and hadrons make neutrons and protons, which you find in…the nucleus. Pions and kayons:

There are many important discoveries in physics, such as the discovery of pion decay (consisting of an up quark and down antiquark) to muon and muon neutrino particles. In weak interaction, W +, W- particles occur, yet no one has seen them.

https://mgronline.com/science/detail/9640000016825

Mesons with two quarks – pions, 270x size of an electron – and kaons – 4, maybe six quarks, very interesting subjects,and a source of many high energy astrophysics awards and interest. One of these experiments could serve as a key to a locked door, flinging wide an entirely new way of understanding physics, time, and human behavior.

The weak force powers the sun. The strong force binds atomic nuclei, and electromagnetism involves magnetic and electric field interaction. Gravity is not accounted for in the Standard Model. Sometimes, that makes me glad. I worry that the mere thought that successfully describes the unification theory could annihilate our local galaxy cluster, due to some weird weak interaction, some sort of unfortunate, rapscallion of a theoretical version of a skadoosh that melts minds in a malediction of weird, imagined mathematical equations. There is a certain safety in not completely becoming one with the universe. Please do NOT put me on the surface of Jupiter, or in a star. Thanks.

When I grew up, I never learned about quarks, for example. I just asked my wife what a ‘quark was’ and she said she has never heard the term before. Because I don’t talk about them at home. The Higgs boson was found after that bird dropped a chunk of baguette in a vent or something, case closed. CERN go beep-beep-beep, meow-meow. I am ignorant of the reasons people choose to construct their lives. To me, much of life appears to be a charade. The ideas are vast, the flesh is unreliable – not bad, just, well, sort of a disappointment, especially when it comes to longevity. If I had a choice, despite the boredom, I would choose to live for a few thousand years if no one cared.

I was obsessed with neutrino research for twenty years, but then I started finding more and more reasons to look at muons and leptons. Now I am learning about a glut of arieties of these subatomic particles. The process of qualifying the different forms of these articles is not mysterious, but the different combinations yield a huge amount of verifiable data. The problem with the solar neutrino data came from the paucity of discoverable collisions. Scientists found only a 1/3 or roughly half of the amount of collisions available. There seemed to be some sort of hadronic noise or some other source of the collisions NOT pinned to solar production. Now people are discovering them coming from the air, from lightning strikes and muon cascades. More on Figure 2 later.


Figure 2. Muon cascades, courtesy of Maxwell Society’s Annual Conference on Neutrino Physics,  “Neutrinos, the Sun, other stars, and life by Prof. D. Indumathi”

Facilities

Belle 2,Superkamiokande, Dune, Sno, CERN, others

Belle II in Figure 3 is a more concentrated, smaller program than Atlas at CERN, and it will feature more diversity within its staff, and that means an enriched perspective that better reflects the global community of scientists who are interested in high energy astrophysics. Also, CERN is a big old machine, and, although upgrades to Atlas

FIgure 3. Belle II, courtesy of Belle II

https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.09360

https://arxiv.org/abs/2101.00530

Polarized radiation and the Emergence of Biological Homochirality on Earth and Beyond

What does it mean? How Does it help?

You can throw out the math, though, and just look at the pretty colors and luminosity to determine their distance, as evidenced in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. There are quite a few ways to measure incredibly long distances using parallax:

Subtended angles from points C and D can help scientists find the barycenter of binary systems. In this example, one would usually be concerned with points C and D viewed from A and B, but why cannot this work the other way around? By using the sub-major axis of the elliptical orbits of the two thangs, and using their luminosity, the mass can be derived. Apparent luminosity can be useful, totally helping one derive the mass. With mass, orbital size and period, one can determine dynamical parallax, the distance to the binary system with respect to C and D. The size of a star affects its energy transport design, and this mode of energy transport (think of it as different engines) can differ greatly with scale. Main sequence stars, on the continuum 'between 1 and 6', rate 3.5ish. Math.  

Banana Segue

Figure 4. 1/1,735,476,700,000,000,000,000 bananas away from Andromeda

Unlike stellar parallax (two sticks rotating at a common center point constrained by parallel angles of the reflected conical sections like the cones described by a spinning ‘X’), distances can reach beyond 10 kiloparsecs, or more than 1.7354767e+21 bananas away from you, Figure 4. Because of the curvature of space, it becomes necessary to find more practical methods of measuring things at such gargantuan scale. That is to say, 1,735,476,700,000,000,000,000 bananas are a lot of bananas to verify. This is the distance in bananas from you to the Andromeda Galaxy. That’s 1.73 sextillion bananas away. You cannot find that measurement with a practical banana scale. There, I said it. I put the math back in banana scales. Don’t ask me to extrapolate this in yoctometers (cross-section of low-rent neutrino). I only make minimum wage.

I know some of you would like to verify this distance, anyways, so I suggest you lay one banana after another for 5.5031605e+13 years without a break to complete this task. However, with days off, at eight hours a day, 250 working days per year, you need to get a full-time job for 2.4103843e+14 years. That’s 241,038,430,000,000 years, or a position that could provide employment at $7.25 (the current federal minimum wage) an hour for a grand total of $3.4950572e+18, or $3.495 quintillion dollars, exadollars.

However, if you were Jeff Bezos in 2020, you could have completed your task – at $321 million a day instead of $58 a day – if you were a swarm of minimum wage workers,in a mere 43,552,114.6417 years, so if you started working on this in 2022 on New Year’s Day, you would wrap in about the same period of time, but now you know that you would finish up around August 22nd, in time to stretch, have a good night’s rest, and wake up the next day to commemorate the day Christopher Columbus was arrested by Governor Francisco De Bobadilla in the Indies in 1500 AD and then sent back to Spain to spend time in Stony Lonesome for being a royal jerk. Try putting that explanation on an employee who wants overtime. …AND THAT’S WHY WE CANNOT HAVE OVERTIME. Believe me, in 2.4103843e+14 AD, it will still matter to people living over 10 kiloparsecs ( 1.7355212e+17 bananas) away. Given the number of minimum wage workers in the country, you also need to add an additional dozen states to make the number of minimum wage working clones . It’s just not realistic. You will all perish before any of this is complete. You need robots.

I had to bust out the TI-89 to verify some of these Googled measurements because my kid is screaming and hollering, and my head is just pounding. In Figure 5, if Taoism matters, all data is preserved in a quantum foam that exists in a complex dimension, a seeminlgy scrambled manifold or whatever.

For a visual idea:

Orders_of_magnitude_(english_annotations).png (640×2520)
Figure 5. A banana is roughly 17.5131349% the size of that greasy baby.

Why bring up this stuff, well let’s pause at the neutrino level. Neutrinos were the bad girls of the Standard Model. Neutrinos were not supposed to have mass, but they did, anyways. Neutrinos violated the Standard Model. The unimaginably tiny size of neutrinos meant they passed right through everything fairly easily. This blew me away in 2000 when I first learned of them. I was a tapas/sushi chef. Imagine the customers I scared off rambling about stuff like this while dishing out architecturally finessed dishes of spicy fat tuna tartare that looked like a boat because of cleverly arranged and manipulated cucumber garnishes and fried rice paper passing over a shallow sea of ponzu-dappled soy consomme . I was getting paid $9 an hour to exist like this. Tragic.

Neutrinos, the idea of neutrinos reminded me of the way I passed through life, unable to hold onto anyone or anything, a ‘ghost particle’. I was a Taoist out of habit. It was easier to just align myself to a philosophy that was basically concerned with everything being connected. I do this with bananas, but to each their own, everything is connected, and one usually only is able to scratch the surface, in terms of geomorphology, and philosophical derivations may appear deceptively shallow. That’s okay.

Dust

I am going to write about dust on Tuesday. I will get into the nitty gritty, and, as someone who liked John Fante, who worked as a housekeeping service manager consultant/project manager/account manager, I know poetic and real dust. I got a job at a youth hostel for cleaning it from a building in 1992. I refused a TA position at a college where I helped a professor snatch a new technology department from the void, and the school gave him a dusty lab he forbade me to clean – union rules, dig, and, had it gone my way, he could have paid me to both clean and help him teach the class, and it would have provided me enough money for day care for my two children at the time. Dust with boots on. Dust in windy Kansas. On that dust. Stardust memories. Picasso loved dust.

Dust of Lore and of Love

As I age, I find my life to be itself dusty and forgotten, hidden under a layer of spreading entropy. Example: when my wife and I married, we decided to ‘research the internet’ for wedding vows that we both thought were pretty cool. We looked high and low, and learned about blessings from many cultures. As a former exchange student, I was raised to consider being more multicultural, to embrace and adopt elements of other cultures in place of dumb ones I found within my own monolithic American culture. I didn’t like travelling halfway around the world to see ’21 Jump Street’ scrawled on kids’ notebooks. I didn’t like the waiters at KFC. GTFO.

We decided on an Apache wedding blessing. We loved it. Our friends and family thought it was poetic and truthful. Turns out, fifteen years later, it was a fake. It was written in the 1940s by a former ad man who had spent some time in the Air Force, nothing Apache about him, except for his undying appreciation for photorealistic oil paintings he has made of Native Americans for dozens and dozens of years. The only interesting part, because surely our vows were not a complete fiction, was finding out that he lived in Cocoa Beach where we were married but HOLD UP…that is also inaccurate! It turns out the ‘blessing’ was actually written by a pulp fiction writer Elliot Arnold, a New York Telegraph feature writer, and the poem was created in a book called Blood Brother which was adapted for the movie Broken Arrow starring James “Jimmy” Stewart, and is considered a good example of fakelore and cultural misappropriation. That is SO much worse than getting a Chinese tattoo that actually says something stupid.

Even in love, I have nothing to hold, nothing at all. I open my hands to the night sky and gaze into infinite obscurity, and then I hear someone belching in a passing car. That’s my life.

What’d you wish, George?”
“Oh, not just one wish, a whole hatful. Mary, I know what I’m going to do tomorrow, and the next day, and next year, and the year after that. I’m shakin’ the dust of this crummy little town off my feet and I’m gonna see the world! Italy, Greece, the Parthenon, the Colosseum. Then I’m comin’ back here and go to college and see what they know, and then I’m gonna build things. I’m gonna build airfields, I’m gonna build skyscrapers a hundred stories high, I’m gonna build bridges a mile long. . . .”

It’s a Wonderful Life

That’s George Bailey in a nutshell, except It’s A Wonderful Life only happens to certain people, not people like me, not broken, confused and disconnected people with no sense of identity that drift without a decent family album. That was the spiel they sold to goofy cheese-eating Caucasians like me and my folks, the Cleavers, the wholesome goons who overran the world after WWII. No, I have never seen A Wonderful Life. It would just make me depressed. To me, it even seems a little psychotic, like something Jim Thompson would have one of his characters say before driving off a cliff high on the reefers, chased by dread loneliness.

I actually would The Colosseum with a stray cat on my shoulder. It wandered up to me, climbed me like a tree, and curled it’s tail around my neck and purred against me, leaning into me on its perch. Weirds. I snuck INTO the Acropolis and visited the Parthenon a week later. That was 1992. I have some poorly exposed photos of both places. I drew the exposed lower floor plan that existed UNDER the Coliseum arena where people fought to the death, in painstaking detail, in 1994, and lost the picture during a break-up in 2002. One day dust will take me from this place, to the sea, eventually into the rock, and will be set free through an obliteration of our sun during supernova, that is if some other calamity doesn’t come first -that would be fine, too, like a fine structure constant. I have a reoccurring nightmare that I will live my final years alone in a boring room with a lamp and a cheap couch, on carpet, a well-lit cell with a constant thrum of a crowd behind the wall, a knowing people, and I am without any creature comforts, waiting for the bulb to pop in the socket. It’s a comfortable loneliness to prepare for, but I know I am just animating dust for a few billion heart beats away from oblivion. Have some teas.

I embraced Taoism because I had been raised in a Christian home, but had been an exchange student in a Muslim home, and had Chinese Buddhist friends at school. I sort of unbuckled my soul from its leash and let it go, for better or worse. I just figured I should accept what was happening to relieve stress. I had too many questions. So, in trying to avoid the “fakeness” of standard weddings, I ended up using an even faker wedding vow. The teas are delicious. I am having Earl Grey, peach, chamomile, and Chrysanthemum dust in my water today, to remind me of my English grandmother, my childhood in Georgia, my travels as a young adult, and my dusty middle-age. Old people shed dust. The entropy of their bodies overtakes the ability to do work. The dust remains. My dust, and my life, really boring. Space dust, not boring at all.

A machine learning based Bayesian optimization solution to nonlinear responses in dusty plasmas

Tao
Taoism

Oscillation-like diffusion of two-dimensional liquid dusty plasmas on one-dimensional
periodic substrates with varied widths

One‐Year Analysis of Dust Impact‐Like Events Onto the MMS Spacecraft

Zodiacal Light Scattered from Dust in the F-Corona

Near-Sun observations of an F-corona decrease and K-corona fine structure

IGN and the Penrose Nobel Prize into “old universe” scars

Dust is lazy

Stuff about Dust

Leptins

Stuff about leptins

Forward osmosis barrier, NASA tech transfer for poop capsules a-go-go

Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, “thin”) is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells and enterocytes in the small intestine that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger, which in turn diminishes fat storage in adipocytes. Leptin acts on cell receptors in the arcuate and ventromedial nuclei, as well as other parts of the hypothalamus and dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area, consequently mediating feeding

-wikipedia 02/16/21

Immune system Leptins and Cytokine Storms

There is bi-directional communication and feedback between the HPA axis and the immune system. A number of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha can activate the HPA axis, although IL-1 is the most potent. The HPA axis in turn modulates the immune response, with high levels of cortisol resulting in a suppression of immune and inflammatory reactions. This helps to protect the organism from a lethal overactivation of the immune system, and minimizes tissue damage from inflammation.[4]

The CNS is in many ways “immune privileged“, but it plays an important role in the immune system and is affected by it in turn. The CNS regulates the immune system through neuroendocrine pathways, such as the HPA axis. The HPA axis is responsible for modulating inflammatory responses that occur throughout the body.[9][10]

During an immune response, proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1) are released into the peripheral circulation system and can pass through the blood brain barrier where they can interact with the brain and activate the HPA axis.[10][11][12] Interactions between the proinflammatory cytokines and the brain can alter the metabolic activity of neurotransmitters and cause symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and mood changes.[10][11] Deficiencies in the HPA axis may play a role in allergies and inflammatory/ autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.[9][10][13]

When the HPA axis is activated by stressors, such as an immune response, high levels of glucocorticoids are released into the body and suppress immune response by inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1TNF alpha, and IFN gamma) and increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-4IL-10, and IL-13) in immune cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils [10][11][13][14]

The relationship between chronic stress and its concomitant activation of the HPA axis, and dysfunction of the immune system is unclear; studies have found both immunosuppression and hyperactivation of the immune response.

Immune system[edit]

There is bi-directional communication and feedback between the HPA axis and the immune system. A number of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha can activate the HPA axis, although IL-1 is the most potent. The HPA axis in turn modulates the immune response, with high levels of cortisol resulting in a suppression of immune and inflammatory reactions. This helps to protect the organism from a lethal overactivation of the immune system, and minimizes tissue damage from inflammation.[4]

The CNS is in many ways “immune privileged“, but it plays an important role in the immune system and is affected by it in turn. The CNS regulates the immune system through neuroendocrine pathways, such as the HPA axis. The HPA axis is responsible for modulating inflammatory responses that occur throughout the body.[9][10]

During an immune response, proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1) are released into the peripheral circulation system and can pass through the blood brain barrier where they can interact with the brain and activate the HPA axis.[10][11][12] Interactions between the proinflammatory cytokines and the brain can alter the metabolic activity of neurotransmitters and cause symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and mood changes.[10][11] Deficiencies in the HPA axis may play a role in allergies and inflammatory/ autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.[9][10][13]

When the HPA axis is activated by stressors, such as an immune response, high levels of glucocorticoids are released into the body and suppress immune response by inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1TNF alpha, and IFN gamma) and increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-4IL-10, and IL-13) in immune cells, such as monocytes and neutrophils [10][11][13][14]

The relationship between chronic stress and its concomitant activation of the HPA axis, and dysfunction of the immune system is unclear; studies have found both immunosuppression and hyperactivation of the immune response.

By ShelleyAdams – This file was derived from:  HPA Axis Diagram (Brian M Sweis 2012).png, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=53298307, courtesy of y’all

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